The coral reef is very essential for oceans, and from the last few years, they are in danger due to the hurricanes and disasters. Coral bleaching has been one of the prime causes for the vanishing barrier reefs of Australia; and not just in Australia but also in other parts of the world where such ecosystems are found. Recently Unesco said that World heritage coral reefs could become extinct if the carbon dioxide emission is not controlled, now the attention has been raised to prevent them.
The barrier reefs are formed by the continuous accumulation of small, marine organisms called corals, they form layers over layers for a long time and create a foundation that consists of calcium carbonate. To prevent coral reefs, researchers created a unique technique entitled genetic barcoding. According to a report, the method determines the population of young fish larvae in the coral system that is helping the scientists to know which larvae species are present in the water nearby reefs. The count would help the investigators find out the considerable population of the adult fish and observe the reef ecosystem.
To test the method the scientists took approximately 10,000 larvae in 400 samples and sequenced a barcode to create a map from their genomes. This will not only identify the species but also unveil how many of them could be found at which location and at what time of the year. For this test scientist used a vessel and sampled larvae two times a month. The team of scientists then created a database to compare the barcodes. For database they clipped the fins of some adult fishes, then the DNA of fish is matched with the DNA of larvae.
The scientists then get to know that how many of species were there in the samples. This unique trick was excellent than the old conventional population measurement techniques in which the spines were counted to identify the population.
Professor Moshe Kiflawi, one of the authors of the study, stated that we can now analyse many larvae at a much faster speed and finer resolution than was earlier possible. He continued that now scientists can examine the biological and ecological differences between the species very accurately. They can identify the difference that can affect the survival of some species as some species prefer shallow water to survive and some prefer deep water.
The new method will also generate an artificial environment that will emit lighting and will use microprocessors to maintain the environmental changes. Presently the coral recovery relies on a technique called asexual reproduction, which includes cutting pieces of the corals, growing them in the laboratory and then placing them back on the reef where they can grow fully. This is the artificial method to prevent the coral reefs as they are most significant part of the oceans.