The scientist from US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have found a new way to create hypersensitive sensors by able to decrease the temperature of a piece if aluminum below “quantum backaction” limit. Successful results from this experiment will also help them to dig more on the effect of quantum mechanics in larger materials.
According to physics, when atoms inside any molecule start vibrating, their kinetic energy gets converted into heat energy and that causes a material to raise its temperature. That’s why to make it cooler, scientists try to slow down the kinetic energy of those atoms. It has been found that at absolute zero temperature (-273.15 degree Celsius) the atoms attain complete stability.
One of the common ways of taking out the kinetic energy of molecules is to get them exposed to light. In this, they lose their momentum but simultaneously release a little extra bit of heat too but that usually crosses the “quantum backaction” limit. Quantum backaction limit is a temperature slightly above absolute zero temperature. Physics says if an object is being cooled then its temperature should not go below this limit.
But scientists of NIST have found a way to deal with it by squeezing the light that will be focused on the hot object. To carry out the experiment they designed a nano drum and a circuit to cool the drum. Vibrating microwaves inside the circuit creates its own photon periodically. On the other hand, the vibrating drum has phonons inside them which are a part of the quantum heat. Now, each photon generated from the circuit takes down with it one phonon thus cooling the drum a bit lower than quantum backaction limit.
Squeezing of light also works fine with this and scientists are happy now to remove one kind of fluctuation from its amplitude which was impossible before for them.