Evolution is a known concept for modern day humans. Studies about the ancestors have been important in knowing secrets of life. However, many people still don’t know that most of their characteristics are the contributions of the hominids prior to the modern humans. Especially, modern day humans owe a lot to the Neanderthals. Human characteristic of adapting to situations has come through Neanderthals.
Long years back, when the modern human ancestors had to move to the other parts of the earth, they came across with the Neanderthals Denisovans. Neanderthals helped the modern human ancestors helped them in survival. In fact, the ancient humans have also made children with these Neanderthals and Denisovans. All these can be evident through the modern day human genome.
Most of the genes found with the modern day humans are the contributions of the Neanderthals. It’s a fact that Neanderthal genes account only two to three percent of the entire genome sequence found in case of the contemporary humans. But, the same two-three percent are crucial in developing the characteristics of adaptation in modern day humans, especially outside of Africa.
According to Joshua Akey (University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle), hybridization holds a lot of value in understanding human history. Studies of hybridization of contemporary humans with different hominid groups can reveal many crucial facts about human history. It’s a fact that it is impossible for modern humans to sustain without the above hybridization phenomenon.
Neanderthal genes can be found with most of the modern day humans. Some reports suggest that Neanderthal and Denisovian genes can be found within some groups of Melanesian ancestry. Contemporary humans also do possess these genes. However, nothing much could be revealed regarding the characteristics of these genes or their effects on modern day humans.
Studies reveal after mapping of the human genome that the parts of genes, which are the contributions of Neanderthals, are responsible in developing skin characteristics. Rest of the genes is concerned with immunity within the human body. This makes the humans enable in surviving during the tough conditions.
According to the studies, the genes which retained with the modern humans through Neanderthals hold a lot of positive sides. When hybridization occurred between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals, most of the Neanderthal genes were driven out. This process is known as selective breeding. Here the unwanted characteristics are driven out, keeping those which can be helpful in survival. Population of the Neanderthals was much lesser; hence they got extinct. Through the process, only the most resistive and developed Homo sapiens were left to survive and grow.